Attic turns into the attic. Attic interior
The idea of rational use of premises under the roof belongs to the French architect Francois Mansart. The name Mansarde has become firmly established in the languages of various European nations for the designation of rooms located in whole or in part as if inside a gable roof.
At first they were servants’ rooms, storerooms, workshops. The real revolution in the development of mansards occurred in the 40s of the last century, since the housing problem was acute in big cities. Then began the active development of empty attics – with the device ventilation, lighting and heating.
In recent years, this problem has become relevant in our country. The gradual withdrawal from the standard design, the construction of individual houses and cottages gave rise to the spread of the pitched roof, and the use of attic spaces to accommodate residential premises became a peculiar rule. Depending on the size of the house and the steepness of the roof in the attic, you can equip one or more rooms, which can be either workshops or a room for work, rest, etc.
Constructive solutions for the attic
When building a new residential building, the creation of a well-maintained attic is not difficult. Works are performed in a single ensemble with the design of the whole house, i.e. the attic room is properly equipped and finished. Finishing materials are usually used the same as for the equipment of the first floor.
Another thing – to build and arrange attic space in the finished, operated house. In addition to planning, a number of design problems appear, including the construction of a staircase to the attic, reinforcement of floors and provision of reliable thermal insulation of inclined walls and roofs. Strengthening of overlappings and rafters of the roof is solved with the help of triangular trusses made of wood. They are easily mounted on the roof of the house from the individual elements. The elements of the truss are interconnected by means of metal toothed plates nailed to the tree from two sides. As experience shows, this design is both reliable and durable. It is convenient and cost-effective for complex roofs, where the supporting structures consist of several elements.
If the house is relatively recent construction and the surface of the rafters with a small cosmetic refinement becomes a decorative element of the interior, then this room is not difficult to give a general stylistic unity.
The easiest way to handle the walls is to cover the space between the rafters of the clapboard, wall panels, sheets of drywall or plywood. And the rafters themselves are covered with dark varnish or pinotex. The floor of the attic is made of wood: the boards are nailed directly to the ceiling beams, on top of the sound and heat insulating material.
In order that the attic can be used even in the cold season, the space between the rafters is filled with an effective heater – a slab of mineral wool, polyurethane foam, foam plastic, etc. Then the lining of the boards or chipboard is made on top of the insulation, forming a smooth wall. Then this surface is processed, putty and taped with wallpaper or painted with water-based or oil-based paint.
An important element of the attic lighting is a window that is placed in a vertical end wall or cut through the roof. The light openings in the roof let in more light than in the vertical walls, which is why such windows are especially attractive in regions where the natural light day is short. In the case when it is necessary to reduce the illumination, an appropriate sunscreen is provided – thick curtains or blinds.
Lighting will be quite sufficient if the window size is 10% of the floor area. Moreover, it was proved that the window “looking” into the sky gives 40% more light than the auditory one of the same size. You can set the window low enough – at 80-90 cm and have a good view, but the ideal is the location at a distance of 185-205 cm from the floor to the handle for opening. Windows can be made themselves, but, of course, better if they are factory produced. Today you can choose dormer windows for any roofs with a slope of 15 °.
Skylights are safe to use. They are made of wood with aluminum lining for the outer surface, and in the glass units, hardened glass with increased strength to mechanical loads is installed – they are able to withstand not only hail, but also … rockfall. At production of a double-glazed window installation as shockproof, and absorption or reflex glass is possible. The wooden elements of the window – glued pine wood, treated in a special way – are protected outside from external influences by an aluminum profile (salary) with a polyester coating resistant to environmental influences.
In the open position, the window is fixed with a special lock. With the help of hinges, the transom can be rotated 180 °.